You can find a list of P10s individual setups on the next pages.
The P10 Coherence Beamline of PETRA III synchrotron P10 is situated in sector 7 of PETRA III. It utilizes a 5m long U29 undulator and operates in the medium-hard X-ray regime (5-20keV).
- X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS)
- XPCS is the xX-ray analogue of dynamic light scattering (DLS) in the visible light range. By monitoring changes of 'speckled' diffraction pattern in the time domain, this technique allows it to study slow collective motions on length scales unobservable by visible light.
- Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI).
- CDI is an xX-ray imaging technique,which uses phase retrieval algorithms to reconstruct small objects from a coherent xX-ray scattering pattern. Using advantages of xX-rays, like e.g. element sensitivity or the high penetration depth, it is possible to image objects with a resolution of several tens of nanometers or to look at strain fields inside of nanocrystalsnano-crystals.
The P10 beamline is located at a low beta section and takes advantage of the extreme brightness of the PETRA III storage ring. Currently, the PETRA III synchrotron is operating at 100mA 100-120 mA in top-up mode.
Overall sketch of the beamline
P10 consists of three hutches: The optics hutch and the experimental hutches 1 and 2.
The second experimental hutch EH2 houses the standard sample environment of the beamline and the GINIX setup designed by the group of Prof. T. Salditt of the University of Göttingen. The standard setup and the GINI-X GINIX setup are movable on air pads and can be easily exchanged.
- The standard setup is based on a Huber 4-circle diffractometer and operates usually with a sample-to-detector distance of ~5 m using an evacuated flight path before the detector stage. Two micro-focusing option using compound refractive lenses (~1x1µm^2 ~1x1 µm2 ,~ 3x3µm^2 3x3 µm2 ) are available.
- The GINIX setup uses KB focusing optics (focal size ~300x300nm^2 ~300x300 nm2 ) in combination with waveguides to produce very small (down to 10x10nm^2 10x10 nm2 ) divergent beams for holographic imaging experiments.
P10 operates with an effective energy gap in between ~10.5keV to ~11.5keV 5 keV since the specification for the minimum undulator gap of 9.5mm could not be reached. The actual minimum gap is ~9.8mm. This shifts the lower energy cutoff for the first harmonic to ~3.8keV 8 keV (or ~11.5keV 5 keV for the 3rd harmonic). The increase of the 1st harmonic cutoff is not a problem for P10 but the energy gap might cause problems for some experiments.
This is followed by an absorber system which consists of two linear translations. Each translations is equipped to hold 9 different absorbers. Currently the The center position is left empty on both stages and two different materials are mounted on the different sides. One half holds Silver absorber absorbers for X-ray photon energies above 12 keV and the other half holds both double-sided polished thin Silicon crystals for lower X-ray energies.
Finally, a monitor unit which is based on scattering of a thin Kapton foil under 45° at 90° in combination with a Cyberstar scintillator detector allows to monitor the incident intensity on the sam,plesample.
General components EH2
The first general beamline components in EH2 sit on a 2.7m long optical table in EH2, which is similar to the optical table at the beginning of EH1. The table can be moved out of the beam to install a DN200 (8" tube ID) flight tube, which allows to have a sample in EH1 and use the detectors in EH2. The optical table in EH2 carries a piezo driven water cooled closed loop slit system followed by a retractable monitor device to define and monitor the beam direction. The maximum nominal slit opening is 10x10mm2 and the resolution of the slit position is 0.2 microns. Similar to EH1, the monitor unit is based on scattering of a thin Kapton foil under 45° at 90° in combination with a Cyberstar scintillator detector.
The next element is a micro-focusing lens changer (1D & 2D focusing capability). It allows to reach focal spot sizes between 3-5 microns in both, vertical and horizontal, direction. The lens changer (transfocator design) is equipped with 12 stacks of interchangeable Beryllium lenses, which allows to have the correct lens combination for the desired focal distances (of several meter) and for X-ray energies between 5-20 keV. A Matlab A macro can be used to calculate the best lens combination and best lens-to-sample distance for the chosen X-ray energy.