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  1. Manual
    1. online: google ZVA
  2. Basics
    1. S-parameters
      1. e.g., “scattering parameter”
      2. S_11: reflection coefficient from port 1
      3. S_12 and S_21 are transmission coefficients
      4. S_22: is a reflection from port 2 to
      5. 2nd coef. is the source port, 1st coef. is the receiver port
    2. time-domain measurement
    3. Ports
      1. each port has 2 sensors to monitor
        1. the outgoing wave
          1. coupler takes a little of the “A” wave
        2. the reflected wave
      2. Different plugs for different frequency ranges
        1. size of the gap defines the plug
        2. e.g. 3.5mm, 2.4mm, 1.8mm
        3. Don’t touch inner conductor
      3. Losses:
        1. internal losses pre-calibrated out
        2. any other losses come from what’s connected to ports
      4. Calibration
        1. can use straight transmission to account for losses of cables, but not good calib for devices with large losses
        2. can use a set of manual calibration standards to calculate the set of error terms
          1. manual standards
            1. T for through
            2. S for short
            3. O for open
            4. M for match: no reflection
          2. e.g., need to do O, S, M for port 1 and for port 2, and then T for 1 to 2
        3. Can also do electronic calibration
          1. this is an add-on device that has all the standards and switches electronically
      5. Measurement
        1. Noise
          1. can improve noise be limiting emission bandwidth, but comes at cost of slower measurement
          2. can also increase power which improves signal everywhere
        2. Materials
          1. application note: GOOGLE: material characterization Rohde
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