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Collection of reference papers for FLASH1 and FLASH2 beamlines and instruments.

Last update:  

In case of multiple references, the most complete or up-to-date is 1st.



FEL Machine

  1. W. Ackermann et al.,
    Operation of a Free Electron Laser in the Wavelength Range from the Extreme Ultraviolet to the Water Window,
    Nature Photonics 1, 336-342 (2007);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2007.76

FLASH2 and other recent developments:

  1. B. Faatz et al.,
    Simultaneous operation of two soft x-ray free-electron lasers driven by one linear accelerator,
    New J. Phys. 18, 062002 (2016);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/062002
  2. B. Faatz, M. Braune, O. Hensler, K. Honkavaara, R. Kammering, M. Kuhlmann, E. Ploenjes, J. Roensch-Schulenburg, E. Schneidmiller, S. Schreiber, K. Tiedtke, M. Tischer, R. Treusch, M. Vogt, W. Wurth, M. Yurkov and J. Zamella,
    The FLASH Facility: Advanced Options for FLASH2 and Future Perspectives,
    Appl. Sci. 7, 1114 (2017);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/app7111114
  3. J. Rönsch-Schulenburg, B. Faatz, K. Honkavaara, M. Kuhlmann, S. Schreiber, R. Treusch,
    Experience with Multi-Beam and Multi-Beamline FEL-Operation,
    Proc. IPAC17, Copenhagen, Denmark (2017),
    J.Phys.: Conf. Ser. 874, 012023 (2017);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/874/1/012023
  4. S. Toleikis for the whole FLASH team,
    The FLASH facility - current status in 2018 and future upgrade plans,
    AIP Conf. Proc. 2054, 030015 (2019);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5084578

FEL machine diagnostics

a) Longitudinal FEL beam diagnostics (LOLA)

  1. C. Behrens, N. Gerasimova, Ch. Gerth, B. Schmidt, E. A. Schneidmiller, S. Serkez, S. Wesch, and M. V. Yurkov,
    Constraints on photon pulse duration from longitudinal electron beam diagnostics at a soft x-ray free-electron laser,
    Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 15, 030707 (2012)
    https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.030707

b) Synchronization and Electron Bunch Arrvial time Monitor (BAM)

  1. Schulz, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, H. Bromberger, J.T. Costello, M.K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, M.C. Hoffmann, M. Ilchen, H.Y. Liu, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, S. Pfeiffer, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, C. Schmidt, U. Wegner, H. Schlarb & A.L. Cavalieri,
    Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser,
    Nature Communications 6, 5938 (2015);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6938
  2. A. Angelovski, et al.
    Evaluation of the cone-shaped pickup performance for low charge sub-10 fs arrival-time measurements at free electron laser facilities
    Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 18, 012801 (2015)
    https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.012801


User Facility/Beamline descriptions and Reviews

  1. K. Tiedtke, A. Azima, N. von Bargen, L. Bittner, S. Bonfigt, S. Düsterer, B. Faatz, U. Frühling, M. Gensch, Ch. Gerth, N. Guerassimova, U. Hahn, T. Hans, M. Hesse, K. Honkavaara, U. Jastrow, P. Juranic, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, T. Kracht, M. Kuhlmann, W. B. Li, M. Martins, T. Núñez, E. Plönjes, H. Redlin, E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, J. R. Schneider, S. Schreiber, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, H. Weigelt, M. Wellhöfer, H. Wabnitz, M. V. Yurkov and J. Feldhaus,
    The soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH at DESY: beamlines, diagnostics, and end stations,
    New J. Phys. 11, 023029 (2009);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/11/2/023029

Reviews

  1. Jörg Rossbach, Jochen R. Schneider, Wilfried Wurth,
    10 years of pioneering X-ray science at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH at DESY,
    Physics Reports 808, 1-74 (2019);
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physrep.2019.02.002
  2. Jochen R. Schneider,
    FLASH - from accelerator test facility to the first single-pass soft x-ray free-electron laser,
    J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 194001 (2010);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-4075/43/19/194001
  3. J. Feldhaus,
    FLASH - the first soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) user facility,
    J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 194002 (2010);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-4075/43/19/194002

PG monochromator beamline

  1. M. Martins, M. Wellhöfer, J.T. Hoeft, W. Wurth, J. Feldhaus, and R. Follath,
    Monochromator beamline for FLASH,
    Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 115108 (2006);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2364148
  2. N. Gerasimova, S. Dziarzhytski, J. Feldhaus,
    The monochromator beamline at FLASH: performance, capabilities and upgrade plans,
    Journal of Modern Optics 58, 1480-1485 (2011); 
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500340.2011.588344

THz Beamline

  1. M. Gensch, L. Bittner, A. Chesnov, H. Delsim-Hashemi, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Fruehling, G.A. Geloni, Ch. Gerth, O. Grimm, U. Hahn, M. Hesse, S. Kapitzki, V. Kocharyan, O. Kozlov, E. Matyushevsky, N. Morozov, D. Petrov, E. Ploenjes, M. Roehling,  J. Rossbach, E.L. Saldin, B. Schmidt, P. Schmueser, E.A. Schneidmiller, E. Syresin, A. Willner and M.V. Yurkov,
    New infrared undulator beamline at FLASH,
    Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 423-425 (2008);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2007.12.032
  2. E. Zapolnova, , T. Golz, R. Pan, K. Klose, S. Schreiber and N. Stojanovic.
    THz pulse doubler at FLASH: double pulses for pump–probe experiments at X-ray FELs,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 25, 39-43 (2018);
    https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577517015442
  3. R. Pan, E. Zapolnova, T. Golz, A.J. Krmpot, M.D. Rabasovic, J. Petrovic, V. Asgekar, B. Faatz, F. Tavella, A. Perucchi, S. Kovalev, B. Green, G. Geloni, T. Tanikawa, M. Yurkov, E. Schneidmiller, M. Gensch and N. Stojanovic,
    Photon diagnostics at the FLASH THz beamline,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 26, 700-707 (2019);
    https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577519003412

CAMP chamber and BL1 (after 2014)

  1. Benjamin Erk, Jan P. Müller, Cédric Bomme, Rebecca Boll, Günter Brenner, Henry Chapman, Jonathan Correa, Stefan Düsterer, Siarhei Dziarzhytski, Stefan Eisebitt, Heinz Graafsma, Sören Grunewald, Lars Gumprecht, Robert Hartmann, Günter Hauser, Barbara Keitel, Clemens von Korff Schmising, Marion Kuhlmann, Bastian Manschwetus, Laurent Mercadier, Erland Müller, Christopher Passow, Elke Plönjes, Daniel Ramm, Dimitrios Rompotis, Artem Rudenko, Daniela Rupp, Mario Sauppe, Frank Siewert, Dieter Schlosser, Lothar Strüder, Angad Swiderski, Simone Techert, Kai Tiedtke, Thomas Tilp, Rolf Treusch, Ilme Schlichting, Joachim Ullrich, Robert Moshammer, Thomas Möller and Daniel Rolles,
    CAMP@FLASH: an end-station for imaging, electron- and ion-spectroscopy, and pump–probe experiments at the FLASH free-electron laser,

    J. Synchrotron Rad. 25(5), 1529 - 1540 (2018)
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577518008585
  2.  LCLS CAMP reference

    Lothar Strüder, Sascha Epp, DanielRolles, Robert Hartmann, Peter Holl, Gerhard Lutz, Heike Soltau, Rouven Eckart, Christian Reich, Klaus Heinzinger, Christian Thamm, Artem Rudenko, Faton Krasniqi, Kai-Uwe Kühnel, Christian Bauer, Claus-Dieter Schröter, Robert Moshammer, Simone Techert, Danilo Miessner, Matteo Porro, Olaf Hälker, Norbert Meidinger, Nils Kimmel, Robert Andritschke, Florian Schopper, Georg Weidenspointner, Alexander Ziegler, Daniel Pietschner, Sven Herrmann, Ullrich Pietsch, Albert Walenta, Wolfram Leitenberger, Christoph Bostedt, Thomas Möller, Daniela Rupp, Marcus Adolph, Heinz Graafsma, Helmut Hirsemann, Klaus Gärtner, Rainer Richter, Lutz Foucar, Robert L. Shoeman, Ilme Schlichting, Joachim Ullrich,
    Large-format, high-speed, X-ray pnCCDs combined with electron and ion imaging spectrometers in a multipurpose chamber for experiments at 4th generation light sources,
    Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 614, 483–496 (2010);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2009.12.053

Reaction Microscope (ReMi) at FL26

  1. Georg Schmid, Kirsten Schnorr, Sven Augustin, Severin Meister, Hannes Lindenblatt, Florian Trost, Yifan Liu, Markus Braune, Rolf Treusch, Claus Dieter Schröter, Thomas Pfeifer and Robert Moshammer,
    Reaction Microscope Endstation at FLASH2,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 26 (2019);
    https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577519002236
  2. Severin Meister, Hannes Lindenblatt, Florian Trost, Kirsten Schnorr, Sven Augustin, Markus Braune, Rolf Treusch, Thomas Pfeifer, Robert Moshammer,
    Atomic, Molecular and Cluster Science with the Reaction Microscope Endstation at FLASH2,
    Appl. Sci. 10, 2953 (2020);
    https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082

HEXTOF momentum microscope (mostly) at PG2

  1. D. Kutnyakhov, R.P. Xian, M. Dendzik, M. Heber, F. Pressacco, S.Y.  Agustsson, L. Wenthaus, H. Meyer, S. Gieschen, G. Mercurio, A. Benz, K. Bühlman, S. Däster, R. Gort, D. Curcio, K. Volckaert, M. Bianchi, Ch. Sanders, J A. Miwa, S. Ulstrup, A. Oelsner, C. Tusche, Y.-J. Chen, D. Vasilyev, K. Medjanik, G. Brenner, S. Dziarzhytski, H. Redlin, B. Manschwetus, S. Dong, J. Hauer, L. Rettig, F. Diekmann, K. Rossnagel, J. Demsar, H.-J. Elmers, Ph. Hofmann, R. Ernstorfer, G. Schönhense, Y. Acremann, and W. Wurth,
    Time- and momentum-resolved photoemission studies using time-of-flight momentum microscopy at a free-electron laser,
    Rev. Sci. Instrum. 91, 013109 (2020);
    https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5118777
  2. Xian, R.P., Acremann, Y., Agustsson, S.Y., , M. Dendzik, K. Bühlmann, D. Curcio, D. Kutnyakhov, F. Pressacco, M. Heber, S. Dong, T. Pincelli, J. Demsar, W. Wurth, Ph. Hofmann, M. Wolf, M. Scheidgen, L. Rettig and R. Ernstorfer, An open-source, end-to-end workflow for multidimensional photoemission spectroscopySci Data 7, 442 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00769-8

MULTIP chamber

Example experiments (on molecules, clusters and liquid jets) carried in the MULTIP chamber:

  1. J.D. Koralek, J.B. Kim, P. Brůža, C.B. Curry, Z. Chen, H.A. Bechtel, A.A. Cordones, P. Sperling, S. Toleikis, J.F. Kern, S.P. Moeller, S.H. Glenzer, and D.P. DePonte,
    Generation and characterization of ultrathin free-flowing liquid sheets,
    Nature Comm. 9, 1353 (2018);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03696-w
  2. U. Zastrau, C. Rödel, M. Nakatsutsumi, T. Feigl, K. Appel, B. Chen, T. Döppner, T. Fennel, T. Fiedler, L.B. Fletcher, E. Förster, E. Gamboa, D.O. Gericke, S. Göde, C. Grote-Fortmann, V. Hilbert, L. Kazak, T. Laarmann, H.J. Lee, P. Mabey, F. Martinez, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, H. Pauer, M. Perske, A. Przystawik, S. Roling, S. Skruszewicz, M. Shihab, J. Tiggesbäumker, S. Toleikis, M. Wünsche, H. Zacharias, S.H. Glenzer, and G. Gregori,
    A sensitive EUV Schwarzschild microscope for plasma studies with sub-micrometer resolution,
    Rev. Sci. Instr. 89, 023703 (2018);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5007950

  3. U. Zastrau, P. Sperling, M. Harmand, A. Becker, T. Bornath, R. Bredow, S. Dziarzhytski, T. Fennel, L.B. Fletcher, E. Förster, S. Göde, G. Gregori, V. Hilbert, D. Hochhaus, B. Holst, T. Laarmann, H.J. Lee, T. Ma, J.P. Mithen, R. Mitzner, C.D. Murphy, M. Nakatsutsumi, P. Neumayer, A. Przystawik, S. Roling, M. Schulz, B. Siemer, S. Skruszewicz, J. Tiggesbäumker, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, T. White, M. Wöstmann, H. Zacharias, T. Döppner, S.H. Glenzer, and R. Redmer,
    Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen,
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 105002 (2014);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.105002

  4. A. Przystawik, A. Kickermann, A. Al-Shemmary, S. Düsterer, A.M. Ellis, K. von Haeften, M. Harmand, S. Ramakrishna, H. Redlin, L. Schroedter, M. Schulz, T. Seideman, N. Stojanovic, J. Szekely, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, and T. Laarmann,
    Generation of the simplest rotational wave packet in a diatomic molecule: Tracing a two-level superposition in the time domain,
    Phys. Rev. A 85, 052503 (2012);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.85.052503

Additional XUV spectrometers: Knick-Spec (1.), HiTraX (2.)

  1. L. Schroedter, M. Müller, A. Kickermann, A. Przystawik, S. Toleikis, M. Adolph, L. Flückiger, T. Gorkhover, L. Nösel, M. Krikunova, T. Oelze, Y. Ovcharenko, D. Rupp, M. Sauppe, D. Wolter, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, T. Möller, and T. Laarmann,
    Hidden Charge States in Soft-X-Ray Laser-Produced Nanoplasmas Revealed by Fluorescence Spectroscopy,
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 183401 (2014);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.183401

  2. R.R. Fäustlin, U. Zastrau, S. Toleikis, I. Uschmann, E. Förster and Th. Tschentscher,
    A compact soft X-ray spectrograph combining high efficiency and resolution,
    JINST 5, P02004 (2010);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/5/02/P02004

MUSIX chamber

  1. M. Beye, R.Y. Engel, J.O. Schunck, S. Dziarzhytski, G. Brenner, P.S. Miedema,
    Non-Linear Soft X-Ray Methods on Solids with MUSIX - the Multi-Dimensional Spectroscopy and Inelastic X-Ray Scattering Endstation,
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 31, 014003 (2019),
    https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/aaedf3

Split and Delay Units:

At beamline PG2

  1. F. Sorgenfrei, W.F. Schlotter, T. Beeck, M. Nagasono, S. Gieschen, H. Meyer, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, and W. Wurth,
    The extreme ultraviolet split and femtosecond delay unit at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH,
    Rev. of Sci. Instr. 81, 043107 (2010);  
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3374166

At beamline BL1 /CAMP

  1. Mario Sauppe, Dimitrios Rompotis, Benjamin Erk, Sadia Bari, Tobias Bischoff, Rebecca Boll, Cédric Bomme, Christoph Bostedt, Simon Dörner, Stefan Düsterer, Torsten Feigl, Leonie Flückiger, Tais Gorkhover, Katharina Kolatzki, Marion Kuhlmann, Bruno Langbehn, Nils Monserud, Erland Müller, Jan P. Müller, Christopher Passow, Daniel Ramm, Daniel Rolles, Kaja Schubert, Lucas Schwob, Björn Senfftleben, Rolf Treusch, Anatoli Ulmer, Holger Weigelt, Jannis Zimbalski, Julian Zimmermann, Thomas Möller and Daniela Rupp,
    XUV double-pulses with femtosecond to 650 picoseconds separation from a multilayer mirror based split-and-delay unit at FLASH,
    J. Synchr. Rad. 25, 1517-1528 (2018);
    https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577518006094

At beamline BL2

  1. M. Wöstmann, R. Mitzner, T. Noll, S. Roling, B. Siemer, F. Siewert, S. Eppenhoff, F. Wahlert and H. Zacharias,
    The XUV split-and-delay unit at beamline BL2 at FLASH,
    J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, Special Issue: Frontiers of FEL Science, 164005 (2013);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-4075/46/16/164005
  2. R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Wöstmann, T. Noll, F. Siewert, A.A. Sorokin, M. Richter, K. Tiedtke, H. Zacharias,
    A new soft x-ray autocorrelator – direct evaluation of the temporal properties of FEL pulses at 24 nm,
    Proceedings SRI 2009, AIP Conference Proceedings 1234, pp. 19-22 (2010);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3463172

At beamlines FL24/FL23

  1. Sebastian Roling, Matthias Rollnik, Marion Kuhlmann, Elke Plönjes, Frank Wahlert, Helmut Zacharias,
    A soft x-ray split-and-delay unit for FLASH II,
    Proc. SPIE 10237, Advances in X-ray Free-Electron Lasers Instrumentation IV, 1023712 (14 June 2017);
    https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2265708

Fast Switching Mirror (BL beamlines)

  1. R. Sternberger, M. Sachwitz, A. Donat, U. Gensch, R. Heller, LV. Vu, U. Hahn, H. Schulte-Schrepping, K. Tiedtke,
    A fast switching mirror unit at FLASH,
    Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 635, S47-S51 (2011);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.11.002
  2. J. Good, N. Leuschner, J. Nagler, F. Perlick, M. Sachwitz  and L.V. Vu,
    A Fast Switching Mirror Unit at FLASH,
    J. Phys.: Conf. Series 425, 122008 (2013);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/425/12/122008

4-mirror polarizer for circular polarization (BL beamlines)

  1. C. von Korff Schmising et al.,
    Generating circularly polarized radiation in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range at the free-electron laser FLASH,
    Review of Scientic Instruments 88 053903 (2017);
    https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4983056

Fast shutter (BL, PG, and FLASH2 beamlines)

  1. E. Plönjes and K. Tiedtke,
    The Soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser FLASH at DESY
    in Optical Technologies for Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Coherent Sources,
    edited by F. Canova and L. Poletto (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 197, Springer, Heidelberg, 2015);

Photon diagnostics papers

a) Gas Monitor Detector (GMD)

  1. Andrey A. Sorokin, Yilmaz Bican, Susanne Bonfigt, Maciej Brachmanski, Markus Braune, Ulf Fini Jastrow, Alexander Gottwald, Hendrik Kaser, Mathias Richter and Kai Tiedtke,
    An X-ray gas monitor for free-electron lasers,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 26, 1092-1100 (2019);
    https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577519005174
  2. K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S.V. Bobashev, A.A. Sorokin,  J.B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibic, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, M. Richter,
    Gas-detector for X-ray lasers,
    J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2913328

b) VLS Online Spectrometer

  1. G. Brenner, S. Kapitzki, M. Kuhlmann, E. Ploenjes, T. Noll, F. Siewert,  R. Treusch, K. Tiedtke, R. Reininger, M.D. Roper, M.A. Bowler, F.M. Quinn, J. Feldhaus,
    First results from the online variable line spacing grating spectrometer at FLASH,
    Nucl. Instr. and Meth A 635, S99–S103 (2011);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.09.134

see also "Kalypso detector"

  1. Rota L et al.,
    KALYPSO: Linear array detector for high-repetition rate and real-time beam diagnostics,
    Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 936 10-13 (2018)
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2018.10.093

c) Compact Spectrometer

  1. F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, S. Dziarzhytski, N. Gerasimova, L. Poletto,
    Extreme-ultraviolet compact spectrometer for the characterization of the harmonics content in the free-electron-laser radiation at FLASH,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 19, 596-601 (2012);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0909049512022224
  2. Fabio Frassetto, Siarhei Dziarzhytski, Natalia Guerassimova and Luca Poletto,
    Compact spectrometer for on-line photon diagnostics at FLASH,
    J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425,122010 (2013);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/425/12/122010
  3. F. Frassetto et al.,
    Compact spectrometer for photon diagnostics of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,
    Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 635 S94-98 (2011)
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.11.004

d) Online photoionization spectrometer (OPIS)

  1. Markus Braune, Jens Buck, Marion Kuhlmann, Sören Grunewald, Stefan Düsterer, Jens Viefhaus, Kai Tiedtke
    Non-invasive online wavelength measurements at FLASH2 and present benchmark.
    Proc. PhotonDiag2017,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 25, 3–15 (2018)
    https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577517013893

  2. Markus Braune, Günter Brenner, Siarhei Dziarzhytski, Pavle Juranić, Andrey Sorokin, Kai Tiedtke,
    A non-invasive online photoionization spectrometer for FLASH2,
    Proc. PhotonDiag2015,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 10-20 (2016);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577515022675
  3. Wellhöfer, J.T. Hoeft, M. Martins, W. Wurth, M. Braune, J. Viefhaus, M. Richter, K. Tiedtke,
    Photoelectron spectroscopy as non-invasive method to monitor SASE-FEL radiation,
    JINST 3, P02003 (2008);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/3/02/P02003

e) Gotthard detector

  1. Palutke, N.C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, M. Martins,
    Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,
    Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107(2015); http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/rsi/86/11/10.1063/1.4936293

f) KALYPSO detector

  1. C. Gerth, G. Brenner, M. Caselle, S. Düsterer, D. Haack, D. Makowski, A. Mielczarek, S. Palutke, L. Rota, V. Rybnikov, C. Schmidt, B. Steffen, K. Tiedtke,
    Linear array detector for online diagnostics of spectral distributions at MHz repetition rates,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 26, 1514-1522 (2019);
    https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577519007835

g) Timing tools (photon arrival time monitors)

  1. E. Zapolnova, R. Pan, T. Golz, M. Sindik, M. Nikolic, M. Temme, M. Rabasovic, D. Grujic, Z. Chen, S. Toleikis, N. Stojanovic,
    XUV-driven plasma switch for THz: new spatio-temporal overlap tool for XUV−THz pump−probe experiments at FELs,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 27, 11-16 (2020);
    https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577519014164
  2. M. Harmand, C.D. Murphy, C.R.D. Brown, M. Cammarata, T. Döppner, S. Düsterer, D. Fritz, E. Förster, E. Galtier, J. Gaudin, S.H. Glenzer, S. Göde, G. Gregori, V. Hilbert, D. Hochhaus, T. Laarmann, H.J. Lee, H. Lemke, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, A. Moinard, P. Neumayer, A. Przystawik, H. Redlin, M. Schulz, S. Skruszewicz, F. Tavella, T. Tschentscher, T. White, U. Zastrau, S.Toleikis,
    Plasma switch as a temporal overlap tool for pump-probe experiments at FEL facilities,
    JINST 7, P08007 (2012);  
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/7/08/P08007
  3. M. Drescher, U. Frühling, M. Krikunova, Th. Maltezopoulos, M. Wieland,
    Time-diagnostics for improved dynamics experiments at XUV FELs,
    J. Phys. B, 43, 194010 (2010);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-4075/43/19/194010
  4. T. Maltezopoulos, S. Cunovic, M. Wieland, M. Beye, A. Azima, H. Redlin, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, U. Frühling, F. Budzyn, W. Wurth, A. Föhlisch, M. Drescher,
    Single-shot timing measurement of extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser pulses,
    New Journal of Physics 10, 033026 (2008);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/10/3/033026
  5. C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, F. Hennies, A. Melnikov, M. Nagasono, A. Pietzsch, M. Wolf, W. Wurth, A. Föhlisch,
    A femtosecond X-ray/optical cross-correlator,
    Nature Photonics 2, 165-169 (2008);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2007.298

h) XUV Pulse Length measurements

  1. (overview)
    S. Düsterer, M. Rehders, A. Al-Shemmary, C. Behrens, G. Brenner, O. Brovko, M. DellAngela, M. Drescher, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, U. Frühling, N. Gerasimova, N. Gerken, C. Gerth, T. Golz, A. Grebentsov, E. Hass, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharian, M. Kurka, Th. Limberg, R. Mitzner, R. Moshammer, E. Plönjes, M. Richter, J. Rönsch-Schulenburg, A. Rudenko, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, A. Senftleben, E.A. Schneidmiller, B. Siemer, F. Sorgenfrei, A.A. Sorokin, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, R. Treusch, M. Vogt, M. Wieland, W. Wurth, S. Wesch, M. Yan, M.V. Yurkov, H. Zacharias, S. Schreiber,
    Development of experimental techniques for the characterization of ultrashort photon pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron lasers,
    Phys. Rev. STAB 17, 120702 (2014);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.120702
  2. (THz streaking)
    R. Ivanov, I. Bermúdez Macias, J. Liu, G. Brenner, J. Roensch-Schulenburg, G. Kurdi, U. Fruehling, K, Wenig, S Walther, A Dimitriou, M Drescher, I P Sazhina, A K Kazansky, N M Kabachnik and S. Düsterer
    Single-shot temporal characterization of XUV pulses with duration from ~10 fs to ~350 fs at FLASH
    J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2020)
    https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6455/ab9c38
 Further references - Click here to expand...
  1. (general overview - not only FLASH)
    W. Helml, I. Grguraš, P. N. Juranić, S. Düsterer, T. Mazza, A. R. Maier, N. Hartmann, M. Ilchen, G. Hartmann, L. Patthey, C. Callegari, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. N. Coffee, A. L. Cavalieri, R. Kienberger,
    Ultrashort Free-Electron Laser X-ray Pulses,
    Appl. Sci. 7, 915 (2017);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/app7090915
  2. (THz streaking)
    R. Ivanov, J. Liu, G. Brenner, M. Brachmanski, S. Düsterer,
    FLASH free-electron laser single-shot temporal diagnostic: terahertz-field-driven streaking,
    Special Issue (PhotonDiag2017),
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 25, 26-31 (2018);
    https://doi.org/10.1107/S160057751701253X
  3. (THz streaking)
    I. Grguraš, A.R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Düsterer, A.K. Kazansky,   N.M. Kabachnik,  Th. Tschentscher,   J.T. Costello,   M. Meyer, M.C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, A.L. Cavalieri,
    Ultrafast X-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,
    Nature Photonics 6, 852-857 (2012);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/NPHOTON.2012.276
  4. (THz streaking)
    U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms., F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, M. Drescher,
    Single-shot THz field driven X-ray streak-camera,
    Nature Photonics 3, 523-528 (2009);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2009.160
  5. (spectral measurements)
    R. Engel, S. Düsterer, G. Brenner, and U. Teubner,
    Quasi-real-time photon pulse duration measurement by analysis of FEL radiation spectra,
    Proc. PhotonDiag2015,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 118-122 (2016);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577515022997
  6. (spectral and electron measurements, LOLA)
    Behrens C. , Gerasimova N., Gerth Ch., Schmidt B., Schneidmiller E. ,Serkez S., Wesch S., Yurkov, M.  
    Constraints on photon pulse duration from longitudinal electron beamdiagnostics at a soft X-ray free-electron laser
    Phys. Rev. STAB 15, 030707 (2012);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.030707

  7. (reflectivity change on solids)
    R. Riedel, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Gensch, T. Golz, M. Harmand, N. Medvedev, M.J. Prandolini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, S. Toleikis, U. Wegner, B. Ziaja, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella,
    Single-shot pulse duration monitor for extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers,
    Nature Comm. 4, 1731 (2013);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2754



i) Wavefront Sensor and Wigner Distribution measurements

  1. B. Keitel, E. Plönjes, S. Kreis, M. Kuhlmann, K. Tiedtke, T. Mey, B. Schäfer, K. Mann,
    Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH,
    Proc. PhotonDiag2015,
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 23, 43-49 (2016);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577515020354
  2. K. Mann, B. Flöter, T. Mey, B. Schäfer, B. Keitel, E. Plönjes, K. Tiedtke,
    Hartmann wavefront sensor for EUV radiation,
    Proc. SPIE 8679, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography IV, 867922 (April 1, 2013);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2011508
 Further References: click here to expand...
  1. T. Mey, Radiation characteristics of extreme UV and soft X-ray sources
    PhD Thesis, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.
    Göttingen Series in X-ray Physics; 15 (2015), Universitätsverlag Göttingen, Göttingen, ISBN13: 978-3-86395-211-2;
    http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?univerlag-isbn-978-3-86395-211-2   (for Wigner distribution measurements)
  2. T. Mey, B. Schäfer, K. Mann, B. Keitel, M. Kuhlmann, and E. Plönjes,
    Wigner distribution measurements of the spatial coherence properties of the free-electron laser FLASH
    Optics Express 22, 16571 (2014);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.016571
  3. B. Flöter, Strahlcharakterisierung von Freie-Elektronen-Lasern im weichen Röntgen-Spektralbereich 
    PhD Thesis, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen,
    Göttingen Series in X-ray Physics; 8 (2012), Universitätsverlag Göttingen, Göttingen, ISBN13: 978-3-86395-074-3;
    https://univerlag.uni-goettingen.de/bitstream/handle/3/isbn-978-3-86395-074-3/GSXP8_floeter.pdf?sequence=1&  (for wavefront sensors)



Pump-Probe Laser systems

a) FLASH2

  1. T. Lang, S. Alisauskas, U. Große-Wortmann, T. Hülsenbusch, B. Manschwetus, C. Mohr, J. Müller, F. Peters, N. Schirmel, S. Schulz, A. Swiderski, J. Zheng and I. Hartl,
    Versatile OPCPA Pump-Probe Laser System for the FLASH2 XUV FEL Beamline at DESY,
    2019 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC), Munich, Germany, 2019, pp. 1-1;
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2019.8871596
  2. N. Schirmel, S. Alisauskas, T. Hülsenbusch, B. Manschwetus, C. Mohr, L. Winkelmann, U. Große-Wortmann, J. Zheng, T. Lang, and I. Hartl,
    Long-Term Stabilization of Temporal and Spectral Drifts of a Burst-Mode OPCPA System,
    in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper STu4E.4.;
    https://doi.org/10.1364/CLEO_SI.2019.STu4E.4

b) FLASH1

  1. H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, A. Azima, N. Stojanovic, F. Tavella, I. Will, S. Düsterer,
    The FLASH pump-probe laser system: Setup, characterization and optical beamlines.,
    Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 635, 88–93 (2011);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.09.159
  2. (FEL-laser synchronization)
    S. Schulz, M. K. Czwalinna, M. Felber, P. Prędki, S. Schefer, H. Schlarb, U. Wegner,
    Femtosecond-precision synchronization of the pump-probe optical laser for user experiments at FLASH,
    Proc. SPIE 8778, Advances in X-ray Free-Electron Lasers II: Instrumentation, 87780R (May 3, 2013);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2021572

c) pump-probe data analysis

  1. Evgeny Savelyev, Rebecca Boll, Cédric Bomme, Nora Schirmel, Harald Redlin, Benjamin Erk, Stefan Düsterer, Erland Müller, Hauke Höppner, Sven Toleikis, Jost Müller, Marie Kristin Czwalinna, Rolf Treusch, Thomas Kierspel, Terence Mullins, Sebastian Trippel, Joss Wiese, Jochen Küpper, Felix Brauße, Faruk Krecinic, Arnaud Rouzée, Piotr Rudawski, Per Johnsson, Kasra Amini, Alexandra Lauer, Michael Burt, Mark Brouard, Lauge Christensen, Jan Thøgersen, Henrik Stapelfeldt, Nora Berrah, Maria Müller, Anatoli Ulmer, Simone Techert, Artem Rudenko, Daniel Rolles,
    Jitter-Correction for IR/UV-XUV Pump-Probe Experiments at the FLASH Free-Electron Laser,
    New J. Phys. 19, 043009 (2017),
    https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/aa652d

d) HHG laser source at FL26/ReMi

  1. Elisa Appi, Christina C. Papadopoulou, Jose Louise Mapa, Nishad Wesavkar, Christoph Jusko, Philip Mosel, Skirmantas Ališauskas, Tino Lang, Christoph M. Heyl, Bastian Manschwetus, Maciej Brachmanski, Markus Braune, Hannes Lindenblatt, Florian
    Trost, Severin Meister, Patrizia Schoch, Rolf Treusch, Robert Moshammer, Ingmar Hartl, Uwe Morgner, and Milutin Kovacev,
    A synchronized VUV light source based on high-order harmonic generation at FLASH,
    Sci. Rep. 10, 6867 (2020);
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63019-2

Other references

Damage Tresholds of optical components,  start at TTF1

  1. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, M. Jurek, R. Nietubyc, J.B. Pelka, L. Juha, M. Bittner, V. Létal, and V. Vorlíček, A. Andrejczuk, J. Feldhaus, E.L. Saldin, E.A. Schneidmiller, R. Treusch, and M.V. Yurkov,
    Conductors, semiconductors, and insulators irradiated with shortwavelength free-electron laser,
    J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043107 (2007);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2434989

Study of fluorescent crystals for beam profile imaging,  start at TTF1

  1. Kirm, A. Andrejczuk, J.Krzywinski, and R. Sobierajski,
    Influence of excitation density on luminescence decay in Y3Al5O12:Ce and BaF2 crystals excited by free electron laser radiation in VUV,
    phys. stat. sol. (c) 2, 649-652 (2005);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200460255

Study of carbon coatings for FEL mirrors,  start at TTF1

  1. Steeg, L. Juha, J. Feldhaus, S. Jacobi, R. Sobierajski, C.Michaelsen, A. Andrejczuk, and J. Krzywinski,
    Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers,
    Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 657-659 (2004);
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1645320